An imitator overacts, trying too hard. Historians and cultural experts often see regulations and traditions that initially appear to have an absurd behaviour, manner, or usage but upon further analysis prove to be quite pragmatic. The Kievan Rus state was obliterated by the Mongols and Tartars and splintered into independent principalities, whose rulers paid tributes to the conquering Golden Horde and fought amongst themselves for the title of Grand Duke. Therefore let us preserve caution just in case; and to clarify the necessity for caution let us take a small methodological detour. The fall of Riga, weakened by plague, in brought Peter the Great tremendous satisfaction. Note that Ivan the Terrible had created the same spectacle with his own fake Tsar more than a century earlier.
If we wish we can look for its roots as far back as the first Russian state i. Kievan Rus. Such a conclusion might arise while perusing old Russian documents and noting the contradictory attitude to the expensive parchment: on the one hand, to save parchment, many and various abbreviations are used, while on the other hand, a single letter is stretched with incomprehensible bravado to a length greater than some whole words.
Such an apparently illogical course of action seems undoubtedly absurd and perhaps it is. We—or at least I—simply do not know if there is any rhyme or reason that can be applied to this. The Kievan Rus faded into the past years ago and there is no one to ask. Nestor describes in these chronicles how in the 10th century Grand Duke Vladimir later Saint Vladimir converted to Christianity.
He weighed the merits of Christianity, Judaism and Islam and decided upon Christianity because Islam forbade the use of life line kaalulangus. Many researchers have surmised that if this was not absurd then it was a close relative of absurdity, namely self-irony.
Unfortunately we have no real hope of confirming this supposition. Therefore let us preserve caution just in case; and to clarify the ideallean fat burner review for caution let us take a small methodological detour. Historians and cultural experts often see regulations and traditions that initially appear to have an absurd behaviour, manner, or usage but upon further analysis prove to be quite pragmatic.
Or the reason for the odd manner is based on some false belief — false for sure, but still a belief that in its time was felt to be sensible and reasonable.
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At the beginning of the 19th century, the peasants were still certain that warmth came from the smoke and refused to have chimneys put into their houses. This reminds me of a true story that occurred in the middle of that century. This was the third and last time that Bismarck was known to laugh heartily. Erroneous logic can be overcome and absurdity will disappear. Estonian peasants no longer live in chimneyless homes. They learned quite quickly that a house with a chimney is more comfortable and also warmer and thus chimneys were accepted.
I THE ROOTS OF SOVIET ABSURDITY
A good example of this category is the nomads who, forced to move to apartments, erected their yurts in the living rooms and tried to continue living in their accustomed style.
Occurences ideallean fat burner review as these happened in the Soviet Union. Soviet authorities thought that they were doing a good deed when they built row upon row of high rise apartment buildings on the lands of hambaravi salendavad juhtmed people and forcibly stuffed these free ideallean fat burner review herders into them.
They ruined the traditions of an ancient people without allowing time for new traditions and ways to be assimilated and tervislik kaalulangus 8 kuu jooksul. In regards to principled conservatism it must by all means be noted that even though it occasionaally bears strange hip rasva poletamine absurd fruit, cultural conservatism as a whole is still sensible and rational.
Or in other words, as many changes must be made as needed and as few as possible. For example, it may make you shiver with fright when you see photos of respectable old men in some Central Asian desert wearing heavy sheepskin coats and hats in the middle of a scorchingly hot summer day. It gives one shivers until one realizes that this coat and hat are actually holding in coolness.
Virtual absurdity is usually a stumbling block for ideallean fat burner review person when he enters into a new culture; especially when that individual comes from a people that consider ideallean fat burner review more cultured and advanced, like most larger peoples.
When he sees something unaccustomed, he is convinced that he is dealing with a backward and foolish phenomenon which must by all means be eliminated. When the Soviets invaded Estonia inthey were certain that in Estonia — as in all non-socialist and therefore poor and unenlightened nations — illiteracy had to be wiped out.
They had no idea that in Estonia, general illiteracy had been eliminated already in the 18th century, at the same time as it was eliminated in England, Sweden and Germany and before France and Italy, not to speak of Russia which did not achieve general literacy until the second half of the 20th century. But let us return from our detour and look at Russian absurdity.
Although we cannot be certain that its roots extend into the beginning of the 2nd millennium, we can be certain that they reach far into the past. The Kievan Rus state was obliterated by the Mongols and Tartars and splintered into independent principalities, whose rulers paid tributes to the conquering Golden Horde and fought amongst themselves for the title of Grand Duke.
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At this time, the most powerful principality was Moscovy, whose rulers by the 16th century had become rulers over all of Russia and began to call themselves Tsars. In Constantinople was conquered by the Turks and the Byzantine empire ceased to exist. This ambitious vision placed Muscovy in a ideallean fat burner review boundlessly higher than Western Europe. The West viewed Russia as something distant, dangerous and foreign—barbaric as Turkey and exotic as China.
This had not been always this way. As late as the 11th century, the Grand Dukes of Kievan Rus hobnobbed in the elite society restricted to the crowned heads of Europe and where the branches of royal family trees were tightly interwoven in defense and quest of dynasties.
After the Mongol conquest, Russia was pulled to the East, and when Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century tried to forcibly take a piece of Western Europe during the Livonian war, he was deemed to be a frightening eastern barbarian. By the way this belief was not far from the truth. The slim alla nuud cynthia sassi ulevaated of cruelties and monstrosities committed on a huge scale by Ivan the Terrible in his own land and to his own subjects under the framework of Oprichnina politics could not be adequately explained by any sane person then or now.
The 16th century chronicler Balthasar Russow of Tallinn, a contemporary of Ivan the Terrible, wrote in astonishment that if an army of a hundred thousand men attacked Russia, they could not do as much kaalulangus peatub periood and damage as Ivan the Terrible had done to his own land and people.
The Tsar slaughtered all of the people in whole regions and killed, in waves of thousands, members of the upper crust of the society regardless of their loyalty.
Worse yet. Russian rulers knew, or at least suspected, what was thought of them and their land in the West.
Muscovy rulers have always suspected that the West masks a mocking or even disdainful smirk in its relations with them and this suspicion can bring about a dire, unpredictable reaction. It is not quite clear whether this inferiority complex can be considered the main progenitor of Russian absurdity, but we may say that it is a contributor.
Peter was undoubtedly a gifted person, but his talent and openness were mixed with the worst characteristics of Eastern despots, namely cruelty and a hair trigger temper. Especially despicable was his delight in the humiliation of people to which his own subjects and foreign visitors alike fell victim. Peter the Great simultaneously admired and envied the West. His respect was sincere and he did not hide his desire to turn Russia into a Western country by accepting and incorporating western dress, manners, architecture, weaponry etc.
Even though we need not yet definitively denote these juxtapositions as absurdities, we may claim that Western ideals and Eastern customs are incompatible, and sometimes brought about strange or weird consequences.
The first conflict occurred in the city of Riga in Swedish owned Latvia. For some unexplained reason, Peter wished to travel incognito under the common name Peter Mikhailov whilst still enjoying the honours, attentions and respects afforded to a Tsar.
The Swedes did not know how to handle such a situation and thought it correct to treat Peter Mikhailov as they would any other common member of the Russian entourage.
If we wish we can look for its roots as far back as the first Russian state i.
Thus Peter Mikhailov was treated as all other Peter Mikhailovs would be treated. To Peter, this was such an immense insult ideallean fat burner review it drove him to despise Sweden and Riga. And during the siege of Riga, inPeter himself threw the first three grenades onto the walls of that city.
The fall of Riga, weakened by plague, in brought Peter the Great tremendous satisfaction.
This occurred in London where Peter wished to see a sitting of Parliament without actually entering the building. A ridiculous solution was found, where the Tsar was perched on the roof where he could view a joint session of the lower and upper house presided over by the King himself. Becoming aware of the absurdity, Peter had to clamber down from his perch sooner than he had planned.
Peter attempted to be simultaneously an all powerful Tsar and one of his own subjects. Sometimes he was an officer of the Preobrazhenskij Regiment, sometimes a naval sailor who rose step by step ideallean fat burner review the ranks to the lofty position of vice admiral.
Note that Ivan the Terrible had created the same spectacle with his own fake Tsar more than a century earlier.
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Still it was a rather absurd charade. Most certainly it left an imprint upon Russian culture. Still, regardless of his absurdities, Peter the Great is generally remembered as a serious and harsh ruler and his farcical escapades and charades were remembered in later years in good humor and deemed to be rather praiseworthy than shameful.
By these actions I mean his coercive mixing of East and West into some concoction, full of conflict and weird harmonies. Somewhere in this mixture lies the very strength and weakness of Russian culture, if weakness is seen as a continuous problem with identity. In more than half a millennium, Russia has not been able to decide whether it belongs to the West or to the East, and finds itself a stranger in both.
This was not a favourable situation to be in as this could, and in fact has done so repeatedly, instigate irrational aggressions and real life absurdities. Still, it also creates fertile soil for a finely textured culture and therein some incomprehensible absurdity and surrealistic humor. It is not hard to see the analogy to the Austrian-Hungarian empire where East and West met and partially mixed.
As a result, an Austrian differs, especially culturally, from a Prussian, although they speak the same language. After the reign of Peter the Great, two prolific wellsprings of practical absurdity started or continued to work ideallean fat burner review Russia. Similar codes and regulations were employed in all European states but nowhere in as rigid a fashion as they were in Russia.
An imitator will always be in greater danger of inclining to absurdity than the originator because he cannot quite understand the connection between the phenomena such as some law, custom, manners and dress code and the reason it was created.
Although it is normal to eat porridge with a spoon. Or a person may go to a luncheon meeting wearing a tuxedo. An imitator overacts, trying too hard. This is a critical key to understanding many Russian absurdities. Russian bureaucracy became especially absurd because of its deeply ingrained inefficiency. In comparing Russian imitation with genuine Prussian bureaucracy Juri Lotman has described their principal difference like this: royal orders in Prussia were slowly and methodically delegated through a chain of command until the task was assuredly completed by a responsible designated individual.
Glitches such as these did not especially bother this huge machine. This calls to mind the building of a kilometer railroad over rugged terrain at great trouble and expense with one kilometer stretch of rail missing somewhere in the middle and no one — or almost no one —letting himself get upset over this.
Russian bureaucracy has always been associated with a certain level of corruption, whose most evident manifestation was bribery.
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It was never as rampant and cynical as in classical Eastern tyrannies, but considerably higher than was the European average. And this feature too was taken along by the Russians into the Soviet Union. To be a tiny, insignificant cog with almost no responsibility in a ideallean fat burner review, complex machine but to also have no opportunity to go elsewhere or deal with something else in this totally regulated society is a comparatively surrealistic state of affairs that only those with little imagination — dull, apathetic people — can tolerate.
A Russian usually is not dull. Therefore such circumstances lead to discouragement and frustration, resulting in unpredictable reactions and also very often alcoholism. The reader may have noted that alcohol had already made an appearance as a source of ancient Russian possible absurdities.
The reason why it seems to have been present, before all the codes and regulations and the uci tervise kaalulangus tortures and struggles of insignificant clerks within a bureaucratic machinery, will remain unknown to us.
We know more about this significant problem in Russian society and culture from the reign of Peter the Great onward. To put it very simply, a Frenchman drinks for pleasure and to sharpen his wit. A Russian, on the other hand, drinks to lose reason and ideally consciousness; to find, even if temporarily, an escape from his insurmountable ideallean fat burner review.