Let us assume that there are two production factors at the disposal of the producer variable production factor RF m and unchangeable production factor RF 0. Up till now his scientific output has not been described precisely enough.
Band 2: Produktionstechnik. Põllukultuurid ja nende hindamine koost. Tallinn, lk Viileberg, K Mugulviljad. Taimekasvatus koost. Tallinn, Zaag: D. Potatoes and their cultivations in the Netherlands, Wageningen, The dynamics of formation of tubers depending on the thermal treatment of seed potato V.
Jõudu Summary Thermal shock increased the number of tubers per plant from the start of the tuber formation until the harvest and statistically significantly until 60 day after planting LSD.
Presprouting increased the same parameter until 75 day after planting and statistically significantly until 55 day after planting LSD. Mediummaturing cultivar Piret and early cultivar Varajane kollane started to form tubers relatively early, but had smaller average number of tubers per plant during the period from the start of the tuber formation until the harvest, compared to the late cultivar Ants.
Due to the effect of thermal shock, the number of tubers per plant of cultivars Ants LSD and Varajane kollane LSD was stably significant during the whole vegetation period and of medium-maturing cultivar Piret LSD until 50 day after planting.
With cultivar Piret, the stably significant positive effect of presprouting on the number of tubers per plant was until 60 day after planting. Thus, the number of tubers was increased due to thermal shock. Depending on the preplanting treatment, the maximum number of tubers per plant formed between DAP. The maximum number of tuber of presprouted variant After day after planting the number of tubers decreased gradually in all variants.
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At day after planting the presprouted variant had 2. Depending on the cultivar the maximum average number of tubers as an average of all three cultivars was reached during the period of day after planting. It was achieved until 92 day after planting with cultivar Varajane kollane After reaching the maximum average weight of tubers per plant, the gradual decrease of the number of tubers occured in all cultivars.
At day after planting the cultivar Piret had 1. Jirgena 1, J. Theoretical aspects of farm diversification. There are situations in agricultural production when one or several production factors have to be involved in production of different goods and not infrequently such a situation develops when the number and quality of production factors do not correspond to the production goal.
This is shown by large areas of unused agricultural land, continuous unemployment in many rural regions and a low income level. In free market economies, production methods or the type of services provided are determined by those who utilize the limited resources in the most effective way.
The paper deals with effecency determination of the existing resources and the need for a justified production diversification upon applying the law of diminishing returns.
The research includes models on production diversification possibilities within and outside the industry of agriculture. The calculations revealed a potential effect of diversification of labour force and land use in Latvian regions.
Schiller, Joanna The article is an attempt of a new outlook first of all upon scientific output of many years' the years - lecturer on Russian State Law in the Imperial University of Warsaw--Aleksandr Lwowicz Błok. Historians of literature, researchers of life and output of the scientist's son, an eminent poet-symbolist Aleksandr A. Błok, to a high degree were able to reconstruct lot of life and vicissitudes of the Warsaw professor. Thanks to the preserved university archival materials it was possible to add many details to Błok's biography, especially concerning his professional problems.
Key words diversification, economic effecency, resources, production, costs. Introduction In the contemporary world the developed countries are setting up the objective for their economic policy sustainable development of civil society, taking into account the limited economic resources.
The Commission of World Environment and Development of the United Nations explains that development is sustainable when it satisfies the current needs without jeopardizing a possibility for the next generations to satisfy their needs.
Sustainable development is associated with the following aspects of commercial activity B. Rivza, : economic growth, effecency, stabilitysocial justice, social equality and mobility, participation, cultural identityenvironmental healthy environment, a rational use of renewable energy resources, conservation of non-renewable energy resources factors.
Only the development, which equally complies with all three target groups, is capable of a long-term existence. Until now, the market economy has been able to handle the problem of scarsity of resources in the most effective way by distributing the limited resources towards the most effective way of their utilization by means rapid fat loss pty ltd invisible hand.
The way goods are produced and services are provided is closely related to competition amongst producers. In the economy based on free competition, production trends and guantities are determined by managers who use the limited production resources in the most effective way. Agriculture, as a sector of the national economy plays an important role in the economy of every country because the level of its development is decisive in provision of the population with agricultural products and industry with raw materials.
As compared with industrial enterprises, specialization of agricultural enterprises is dependent on economic and natural factors Risks, Agricultural enterprises are closely cooperating with enterprises of other sectors. Cooperation of enterprises of different sectors allows diminishing of seasonality of agricultural production, more efficient utilization of land, labor and capital resources. Excessive production diversification of farms can cause an opposite effect reduction in utilization effecency of resources.
Therefore every agricultural enterprise should develop alternative production diversification options and the most suitable one to specific production and market conditions. Optimal entrepreneurship of a rural farm is considered to be the structure of its products, which in specific natural and economic circumstances ensures the most effective use of land, labor, machinery, fertilizers and other production resources.
Utilization effectiveness of resources on farms Upon analyzing and exploring utilization of resources involved in agricultural production and their link to production purpose, many different factors are revealed. These factors constitute the totality of causes for the situation when the quantity of resources, which the producer can make use of does not correspond to the production level there is shortage of some of resources and some are to excess Pindyck, For farms it is important not only to identify factors which increase or reduce the utilization effecency indexes but also to know their replacement possibility.
Factors influencing utilization of resource As seen from Fig. Knowing the factors, which influence utilization of resources, the farm is able to forecast powers of their influence on the result of production of certain goods and to take timely measures for diminishing a negative impact.
Resources utilized in production of agricultural products in their physical form are difficult to be transformed in any relative physical unit, which would contain in total of all utilized resources.
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Besides, the application of such an index would be rather limited, therefore it is more convenient to count the resources utilized by the farm and apply them in a value expression.
To use advantages of agricultural production and a rural economic environment in a more effective way as compared with economic activity in urban areas and to diminish the impact of factors restricting the development of production, it is necessary to carry out diversification of the production.
Its main advantage is increase in effecency of utilization of production factors being at the disposal of agricultural producers. It is important to outline that for production different products, the resources of a certain amount, and quality are needed In case the farm wishes to start production of other products, then it must acknowledge that the new product will require resources adequate to its specialization and production technology.
Besides, the disposable resources of the farm must conform not only to the product specifics but also to the production quantity. This means that to achieve the diversification aims, the farm will have to acquire some resources on the market in order to develop a quantitative and qualitative structural conformity of the resources, complying with the planned diversification program and to the specifics of the expected product.
It should be noted that upon carrying out the diversification the farm will first of all wish to fully utilize the resources at its disposal, the amount of resources to be acquired must be coordinated with the amount of resources already existing on the farm. Upon acquiring the necessary production resources for implementation of the diversification projects, that farm must take into account that increasing one production factor without changing the amount and quality of other factors involved in production, is gradually decreasing the return of the acquired resource unit The law of diminishing returns disclosed by American scientist James Clark is mentioned in economics also as the law of diminishing marginal returnsor the 2 12 12 H.
Vanags law of the diminishing marginal product. Other authors call this economic regularity as the law of diminishing returns from production factors.
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Let us assume that there are two production factors at the disposal of the producer rapid fat loss pty ltd production factor RF m and unchangeable production factor RF 0. RF m RF product function is shown as the curve with a negative increase. As seen in figure 3, upon increasing the level of production factor RF involved in the production in a short period of time, the marginal product is being reduced until it reaches a zero value at a point when the output reaches its maximum value, increasing gradually the level of variable production factor.
The return of variable production factor is clearly characterized by the marginal product. Diminishing marginal product As seen in figure 2 upon reaching the level of RF 0, the production factor increases output up to it maximum level Q m. Increasing the production factor according to its amount RF 0 is not yielding a positive result anymore an increase in output is negative.
This regularity in the theory of economics Pindyck, An important conclusion can be drawn from the above mentioned: increase of one or two production factors does not yield a proportional increase in output; increase in one or two production factors if other production tfx kaalulangus remain unchanged, does not ensure an effective utilization of production factors involved in production and restricts an increase in output; upon existing of different provision of production factors, output can be increased up to the limit, while one of the production factors has been fully utilized; to achieve the expected output, all the production factors must be increased and their optimum combination must correspond to production technology and level.
In agricultural production unbalanced resources should be considered as an objective phenomenon having different reasons. Part of resources involved in production in a short-term remains unchanged, but others are changing.
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Therefore, it is necessary to determine the amount of variable production factor involved in production, which yields an optimum result in every specific situation. Upon achieving adequacy of resources to the type and output, farms are able to increase their revenues by fully utilizing resources which are not fully utilized in agricultural production. Justification of production diversification need The law of diminishing returns and the character of changes in marginal product have a great practical significance in determination of the need for agricultural production diversification.
In this case there are two possible approaches: a critical need for diversification; desirable diversification to ensure a fuller utilization of resources. In the result of implementation of the above mentioned diversification approach the moment when a critical need for diversification sets in and when a maximum possible output Q max is achieved is clarified and the amount of the production factor involved in production has reached the level RF c that is shown in figure 4.
Nevertheless this does not mean that the production must be continued until TQ reaches this value Q A, as it is not advantageous from the point of view of effective utilization of resources and maximization of profit.
So, production of the product Q must be stopped as soon as the maximum amount Q max is reached and the variable production factor has utilized RF c units.
Therefore it must be clarified, which production level of the product Q should be stopped and production diversification could be implemented to utilize the production factors in a more effective way. In order to solve this task, the curves of the marginal product MQ and of the mean efficiency VR are used, which are shown at the bottom of figure 4. The marginal product and the mean efficiency curves must be evaluated in association with the curve of the total product TQ. From 0 to point A an increase in TQ curve is gradually growing until the maximum production level is reached, which corresponds to the level Q C.
As seen in Fig. In this point the marginal product MQ has reached its maximum value. After point A, the character of the gross product TQ curve changes. Upon increasing consumption of rapid fat loss pty ltd variable production factor an increase in the production level is ongoing and the rate of its increase stays relatively unchanged until point B wich come up to production volume Q B.
Determination of optimal production level Pindyck, This is determined by the following considerations which are justified by curves shown in figure 4: upon increasing of the amount of the production factor involved in production, the efficiency of the factor starts reducing. This means that utilization effecency of the variable and of the other production factors is reducing; upon reducing the efficiency of production factors, the mean variable production costs are increasing and thus the profit is falling.
Taking into account the above mentioned considerations, the production level Q B and the amount of variable production factor utilized RF B are considered as the starting point when implementation of the production diversification would be useful to achieve more effective utilization of resources, receiving more return.
Eremeev, P. Lääniste, E. Mäeorg, J. Mugulate arvu kujunemise dünaamika sõltuvalt seemnekartuli termilisest töötlemisest Jirgena, J.
But prior to the decision-making on diversification of the product, the situation must be throughly evaluated and it must be taken into consideration that start-up of production of a new product will require considerable resources that might exceed revenues. Continuing increase in production level Q B consumption of the variable production factor is increasing until the production level Q C is reached.
As seen in figure 4, an increase in production level after the point Q B, is gradually reducing until the level Q C has been reached. It shows a stoppage of a positive increase in output. If in this situation the amount of production factor involved in production increases, then an increase in production becomes negative or it reduces, causing apparent and undeniable losses. This limit correlates with a critical need for diversification.
Thus, applying the law of diminishing returns and slim fast kaalulangus esimene nadal model of production function, an optimum interval of the production diversification is determined, which is situated between points B and C and the curve of gross product TQ or points B 1 and C 1 that is situated on the curve of the marginal product MQ.
On farms, the law of diminishing marginal returns implies the following economic activities: 1. By increasing the quantity of fertilisers used per unit of land, the rapid fat loss pty ltd of crops per unit of land initially grows. If rapid fat loss pty ltd quantity of fertilisers exceeds a biological limit, the output of crops per unit of land will decrease; 2.
To some point, increasing the quantity of feed for cows can increase milk yield per cow. If the quantity of feed exceeds biological limits, milk yield per cow might decrease.
Such a situation might emerge on any farm. Therefore, increasing the efficiency of using disposable resources requires taking measures of production diversification. Diversification possibilities of economic activity Diversification of economic activity means that rural socio-economic processes are analyzed and explored in the following aspects: Diversification of economic activity within the sector of agriculture or the diversification of production in its narrower meaning.
It is developing basically upon changing a quantitative and qualitative content of agricultural output, and upon maintaining of the absolute majority of agricultural products within the gross value of production level; Diversification of agricultural activity outside the sector of agriculture or the production diversification in its broader meaning that provides a possibility to achieve a higher efficiency of the disposal resources and provides more benefits to the society.
Diversification of economic activity within the sector of agriculture until now it is the most widespread type of diversification of economic activity in rural areas of Latvia. Such a trend can be explained by a relatively high percentage of rural population and their former or current connection to agricultural production and professional qualification knowledge, experience and skills in production of agricultural goods.
A rapidly changing socio-economic environment and economic globalization as well as different agri-climatic and biological conditions of agricultural production precludes a possibility for many farms to earn sufficient means for survival in a rural environment upon maintaining production of goods within the sector 15 Theoretical aspects of farm diversification 15 of agriculture Global, Such circumstances create objective prerequisites for diversification of economic activity in its broader sense when the diversification object is the resources at the disposal of the farm and the diversification target to maximize incomes in concrete socio-economic circumstances by utilizing the resources in the best and most effective way.
Diversification of economic activity within the sector of agriculture As it was already mentioned above, diversification of economic activity in its narrower sense is associated with the production diversification of goods and services within the sector of agriculture.
It is important for increasing income of rural households. It is important to note that diversification of economic activity in rural areas is characteristic for a certain gradualness and technologically economic connection. The model of diversification of economic activity when the production of goods and services is diversified within the sector of agriculture is incorporated into figure 5.
Model of diversification of economic activity within the sector of agriculture. It is apparent that the model into the figure 5 provides a clear notion of the diversification of economic activity within the sector of agriculture. The farm utilizes the disposal resources for production of a certain type and quantity of agricultural goods.
These goods are sold to the market and are confronted there with changeable demands of consumers and with imported agricultural products. Under the impact of these factors, the return of resources utilized by the farm is gradually decreasing upon maintaining on unchanged composition and quantity of agricultural goods produced on the mentioned farm.
This means that it is the right time for diversification of the product what the farm is successfully coping with and starts production of new agricultural goods, the amount and characteristics of which to a large extent corresponds to the market requirements. And so it goes on following changes in the market of goods. The market of agricultural goods is not the only variable factor, which determines the need for diversification of economic activity on the farm.
Resources constantly stay under the impact of external and internal factors. If agricultural land areas are reducing or increasing, then the farm will be pressed to diversify the assortment of agricultural products giving preference to the most rapid fat loss pty ltd utilization type of resources. Thus, the model into figure 5 gives a possibility to conclude that production diversification is a continuous process, the development of which is characteristic for withdrawal of the existing product from the production or its decreasing that is a response to the changeable market demands and an uninterrupted upgrading of agricultural production.
Diversification of economic activity within several sectors of the national economy. Thus, a qualitatively new stage of diversification of economic activity sets in production of goods and services not characteristic for the sector of agriculture, gradually reducing production of agricultural goods.
In this case, the farm must be aware of higher risks that are associated with production of new goods and services as well as threats and possibilities of outlets for these products. As shown by various study results, in circumstances of Latvia s rural environment, the diversification of economic activity outside the sector of agriculture is characteristic for the following basic development directions: rural tourism; processing agricultural products, producing unique and high quality foodstuffs; crafts, offering various hand-made and high quality ware; offer of construction services, etc.
The model of diversification of economic activity outside the sector of agriculture is included into figure 6. Model of diversification in a wider understanding. The model of diversification of economic activity, using possibilities offered by several sectors of the national economy, is included into Fig.
In this case, production of goods and service in the result of diversification can be relatively divided into two parts: production of agricultural goods and services; production of goods and services in sectors associated with agriculture or not.
It is important to note that in the result of diversification, production of goods outside the sector of agriculture and production of agricultural goods is interrelated. Thus, a desirable result of diversification is achieved to raise efficiency of resources at one s disposal. The figure shows that the process of diversification of economic activity constantly stays under an impact of changeable demands of the market for goods and services.
Other factors characteristic for every individual farm have also an impact on the diversification process. Potential resources of labour force and land for diversification in Latvian regions To determine a potential effect of diversifying the labour force and land use, calculations on part-time employees and land use efficiency in Latvian regions were done.
To increase the efficiency of using the labour force available for farms, the diversification of using part-time employees is projected with the purpose of transforming them into full-time employees. The potential effect gained from diversifying the use of labour force is shown in table 1. Table 1.
Gross effect of diversifying the labour force of farms in using the average wage method Region Average gross wage Gross effect of Work time missed in LVL Diversification diversification agriculture thsnd. The largest potential gross effects are expected in Latgale region LVL The least gross effects are possible in Vidzeme region LVL It implies that labour force diversification activities would produce relatively large extra incomes in household budgets and create a large side-effect along with an increase in the gross domestic product.
The possible effect of diversifying land use is determined, taking into account constraints and assumptions for diversifying land use: a farm will use its disposable land for producing agricultural commodities if this land, used rapid fat loss pty ltd this way, produces the largest net income compared to other possible types of land use.
To determine the economic effect of diversifying land use, the method of value added comparison per unit of land was applied. The indicators showing the potential diversification of disposable farm land are broken down by rural regions and presented in table 2. Diversifiable agricultural lands in Latvian regions in Land area distribution by regions thsnd.
Most of these lands are concentrated in Latgale region thsnd. The next largest area of diversifiable lands was identified in Vidzeme region thsnd. Much better respective indicators are in Zemgale region It implies that better conditions for intensive use of agricultural land have historically and naturally emerged in these regions if compared to Vidzeme and Latgale regions.
In the country in total, an area of thsnd. This area accounts for Disposable farm land can be used in a better and efficient way and that is why it is possible that farms being in a better position for producing agricultural commodities might use a part or all of their land for non-agricultural purposes.
The value added indicators for rural regions broken down by above mentioned economic activity groups are compiled in table 3.
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Table 3. Value added in rural regions in In rural Value added distribution by regions mln LVL regions Indicator mln LVL Kurzeme Latgale Pierīga Vidzeme Zemgale Agriculture 23,40 35,77 22,16 44,74 59,62 ,69 Forestry 15,42 20,12 9,50 27,42 28,06 ,51 Industry and construction 63,13 79,46 ,55 ,47 87,29 ,89 Service industries ,37 ,84 ,21 ,43,82 Total ,32 ,19 ,41 ,05,91 Source: Latvian CSB and author s estimates As we can see in Table 3, the largest value added in agriculture was produced in Zemgale region LVL The least value added was gained in Pierīga region.
It can be explained by agricultural and climatic conditions and suitability of soil for agricultural production in these regions. The largest value added from economic activity in forestry was gained in Zemgale region LVL The least value added from forestry was produced in Pierīga region LVL 9.
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The least value added from this kind of activity was produced in Latgale region LVL The largest value added produced by other economic activities was in Pierīga region, amounting to LVL million, followed by Vidzeme region LVL million which is 1.
The least value added from services was in Kurzeme region LVL million or 2. From the point of view of alternative use of land, other types of land use produce a larger value added only in the regions of Pierīga and Kurzeme, if compared to agriculture.
Therefore, the alternative use of land for producing goods and services is profitable there. It can be explained by the influence of large cities Rīga in Pierīga region and Liepāja and Ventspils in Kurzeme region.
There are possibilities for diversifying land use in other rural regions, but implementing them depends on farm specialisation and economic and social factors impacting farm performance.
Vanags Conclusions 1.
Diversification of economic activity is influenced by the different internal and external factors. Economical basis for diversification changes of effectiveness utilization of farm s disposal resources. Production of different products in the farm is determined by necessity utilization limited inputs in the most effective way.
Upon existing of difference in provision of production factors, it is possible to increase production volume up to the limit when one input is fully utilized. To satisfy the production volume it is not enough to ensure only production factors but also their optimum combination that corresponds to the technology of the chosen type of production. Diversification of economic activity can be implemented within the sector of agriculture or several sectors of the national economy, taking account of specific circumstances of every farm 7.
The activities of labour force diversification can produce an extra income of more than LVL million for rural household budgets and make a positive effect on GDP growth. An area of thsnd.
References B. Rivza, P. Rivza, H. Jirgena, M. Kruzmetra, Z. Zaharova Development of Multifunctionality idea from Cork to Salzsburg. LAS Basic research trends of economics and jurisprudence Riga, 9, Presentation of the conclusion plenary session of the conference Economics for rural development, Jelgava, 44 p.
Global Change and Transformation ed. Living countrysides NL, p. Pindyck Rapid fat loss pty ltd. L Microeconomics. Prentice Hall, p. London, p. Latvijas Republikas zemes pārskats [tiešsaiste] [skatīts 5. Twenty Estonian Holstein calves 12 male and 8 female were involved in the experiment at 5 days of age. Texturized calf starter and hay were offered ad libidum, and intake was measured daily. A subset of male calves was euthanized at 35 d of age and the other at 65 days of age for rumen epithelial growth measurements.
Average final body weight of the control group was kg, and that of the 2YC group kg, the average daily gain of the control group during the first month was g and that of 2YC group g; during the second month it was g and g, respectively. In the first month the dry matter intake of the control group was 1.
It was not significantly affected by yeast supplementation in the starter ration. Supplemental live yeast culture in the calf starter did not increase dry matter intake of the calves in the two first months of life.
In the second month of life, yeast supplementation slightly increased the daily gain of 2YC group and improved the usage of metabolizable protein, as compared to the control group. The results indicate that calves receiving supplemental yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture exhibited a slight improvement in rumen development parameters.
Key words: yeast culture, rumen development, intake, calf Introduction Yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown several effects in ruminants. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of feeding yeast products to the diet of pre-ruminant and pre-weaning dairy calves.
Including of live yeast in calf starter at levels 0. There are no effects of yeast culture containing 0. Previous rumen development research has reported dry ration effects on rumen development parameters papillae length and width, rumen wall thickness but has focused on dietary physical form or dietary type Stobo et al. They were connected with dramatic events in personal life of the professor.
According to relations of the part of his university co-workers and students, the circumstances even brought about the symptoms of the mental illness. Prematurely elderly he was a man deeply miserable, lonely and deprived of understanding by associates. Up till now his scientific output has not been described precisely enough. Not numerous memories of his contemporaries Szymon Askenazy, Nikołaj Dubrowskij and even inconspicuous modern researches of the Polish Janusz Woliński brought about, in the author's opinion, too simplified and schematic character-sketch of Błok as a Russificator and nationalist, mediocre scholar and much worse lecturer.
A scientific output of Błok is, indeed, inostensible--he published 2 books only--Master's thesis entitled: Władza państwowa w społeczeństwie europejskim.