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Interview with Dr Imad Ghandour In recent years, zirconia has emerged as the preferred choice for dentists who wish to perform restorative procedures with a reliable and metal-free material. In comparison to the opaque whiteness of older generations of zirconia, these newer versions have an enhanced appearance and functionality that makes them suitable for natural-looking anterior restorations.

Suitable for zirconia prostheses, from single crown to full arch, it is an ideal option for restorations in both the anterior and posterior regions. Dr Ghandour, when did you first start using zirconia as a material for your restorations?

Inwhen I was still sintering manually, I began using zirconia alumina. It was nice to have an alternative to metal alloys that was much more aesthetic.

Now, with so much of dentistry being digitally focused, there is a need for a material that can be milled without changing anything in the morphology of the teeth. Because we need to be able to reproduce the kaalulangus napunaide zubaida tariq poolt plan as accurately as possible.

With respect to dentistry being digitally focused, how has this changed the role of the dentist regarding performing restorative procedures? Well, it is clear that we have entered the age of digital dentistry. There are great advances being made in the technologies that are available for everyday use in dental practices worldwide, and many of them can be used to assist dentists performing restorative procedures.

It is important, though, to keep in mind that these technological advancements alone will not lead to better results - they should supplement the requisite hands-on skills and techniques that all dentists must first learn. With this base of fundamentals, we can then use digital dentistry to make restorative procedures more predictable and reproducible.

Of course, to ensure the best results in restorative procedures, dentists also need to use the materials that have the best aesthetic and mechanical properties.

This is due to the complexities of the oral environment - the pinkness of the gingivae, for one, can have a large impact on how the restoration appears, often making it seem far duller than it does in the light of a dental laboratory.

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This can cause dental practitioners to compensate and make prostheses that appear far brighter than they will when they are in place. With a product like KATANA and its related glazing materials, however, I can create crowns and other restorations that have an optimal fluorescence and translucency and are able to maintain their shading better than any other ceramic material I have used.

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I am able to select a shade with the confidence that it will look exactly the same once placed inside the mouth, with its chroma remaining unabsorbed by the gingiva. Achieving a natural look, then, depends on choosing a shade that is as close to that of the surrounding dentition as possible.

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Well, firstly, the layering of the material is designed to replicate the colour and translucency progression of natural teeth, which allows for restorations to blend in as much as possible. Simply put, if one sinters a crown quickly, it will be a little more opaque.

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If one sinters it at a higher temperature and kaalulangus kuldne piim slowly, it will be much more translucent. The multi-layered aspect of KATANA Zirconia is excellent in that it gives me the ability to make restorations more or less translucent depending on what is required. Countless manufacturers offer zirconia materials that differ in their mechanical and optical properties and indication range.

Blank quality is highly dependent on the quality of the raw materials and is affected by different aspects during raw material processing, pressing and pre-sintering. This has a huge impact on the surface quality, edge stability, fit and processing requirements of milled restorations.

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Raw material production Pre-shaded dental zirconia typically consists of metal oxides, including zirconium oxide, yttrium oxide and aluminium oxide, as well as additives like binders and colour pigments or ions.

Most manufacturers of dental zirconia obtain pre-fabricated powder from an external industry partner, the most popular option being Tosoh Corporation. In contrast, Kuraray Noritake Dental relies on an end-to-end in-house process.

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At Kuraray Noritake Dental, the powder is produced in-house. Since more powder production steps are carried out in-house, this gives the company full control of the quality of the raw materials, their grain size and the purity of the formulation. It also allows for a precise alignment of the mechanical and optical product properties. Properties of zirconia restorations that are affected by the powder quality and composition include translucency and shade appearance, flexural strength, ageing behaviour and sintering performance.

In the uniaxial compaction process, pressure is applied to the powder from one direction uniaxial or two directions biaxialwhereas the isostatic compaction process involves como compar keha slim fast equal pressure applied from all sides.

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Hence, isostatic pressing typically results in a more uniform density distribution throughout the blank and a higher material homogeneity. These factors are prerequisites for a predictable processing and sintering behaviour and affect the fit of the final restoration. For optimal mechanical and optical properties of the zirconia material, it is essential to avoid large porosities, air pockets and impurities caused by airborne particles that are trapped during pressing.

At Kuraray Noritake Dental, a unique and extremely meticulous pressing process achieves a uniform pressure distribution and low risk of contamination by airborne particles.

This specific procedure reduces gravitation forces and contributes to having as high as possible density of zirconia material. The unique pre-sintering procedure carried out in the production facilities of Kuraray Noritake Dental results in blanks that are stable in their pre-sintered state.


Fast sintering for the laboratory The unique procedure has a positive impact on the surface smoothness after milling and can significantly shorten sintering times. Overview of the recommended sintering protocols. This optimises the performance of the blanks during machining. Surface roughness SEM image, magnification 33X, of competitor material surface roughness. The four images of each material show the surface structure at different areas of a molar crown.

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An optimised processing behaviour leads to regular restoration margins, smooth surfaces and a precise fit of the restorations. The latter is due to the fact that the milling behaviour and volumetric shrinkage during final sintering are highly predictable, so that a user designing a 20 µm cement gap will get what he or she desires. In order to ensure all the desired material properties, including aesthetics and strength, one thing is essential: the machining carried out in the dental laboratory - milling and sintering - needs to adhere to the recommended protocols.

This como compar keha slim fast that the milling machine and furnace should be cleaned and calibrated on a regular basis, which provides the conditions for optimised zirconia processing from the powder to the final, como compar keha slim fast dental restoration.